epithelial
Refers to the cells that line the internal and external surfaces of the body.
epithelial
Refers to the cells that line the internal and external surfaces of the body.
epithelial carcinoma
Cancer that begins in the cells that line an organ.
epithelial carcinoma
Cancer that begins in the cells that line an organ.
epithelial ovarian cancer
Cancer that occurs in the cells on the surface of the ovary. Also called ovarian epithelial cancer.
epithelial ovarian cancer
Cancer that occurs in the cells on the surface of the ovary. Also called ovarian epithelial cancer.
epithelium
A thin layer of tissue that covers organs, glands, and other structures within the body.
epithelium
A thin layer of tissue that covers organs, glands, and other structures within the body.
epitope
A part of a molecule that an antibody will recognize and bind to.
epitope
A part of a molecule that an antibody will recognize and bind to.
EPO906
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called epothilones. Also called epothilone B.
EPO906
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called epothilones. Also called epothilone B.
EPOCH
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including mantle cell lymphoma. It includes the drugs etoposide phosphate, prednisone, vincristine sulfate (Oncovin), cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin hydrochloride (hydroxydaunorubicin). Also called EPOCH regimen.
EPOCH
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including mantle cell lymphoma. It includes the drugs etoposide phosphate, prednisone, vincristine sulfate (Oncovin), cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin hydrochloride (hydroxydaunorubicin). Also called EPOCH regimen.
EPOCH regimen
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including mantle cell lymphoma. It includes the drugs etoposide phosphate, prednisone, vincristine sulfate (Oncovin), cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin hydrochloride (hydroxydaunorubicin). Also called EPOCH.
EPOCH regimen
An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including mantle cell lymphoma. It includes the drugs etoposide phosphate, prednisone, vincristine sulfate (Oncovin), cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin hydrochloride (hydroxydaunorubicin). Also called EPOCH.
epoetin alfa
A substance that is made in the laboratory and stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. It is a type of antianemic and a type of recombinant human erythropoietin.
epoetin alfa
A substance that is made in the laboratory and stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. It is a type of antianemic and a type of recombinant human erythropoietin.
epoetin beta
A substance that is made in the laboratory and stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. It is a type of antianemic and a type of recombinant human erythropoietin.
epoetin beta
A substance that is made in the laboratory and stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. It is a type of antianemic and a type of recombinant human erythropoietin.
epothilone
A substance obtained from bacteria that interferes with cell division. Some epothilones are being studied as treatments for cancer.
epothilone
A substance obtained from bacteria that interferes with cell division. Some epothilones are being studied as treatments for cancer.
epothilone B
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of epothilone. Also called EPO906.
epothilone B
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of epothilone. Also called EPO906.
epothilone D
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor and epothilone. Also called KOS-862.
epothilone D
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor and epothilone. Also called KOS-862.
epothilone ZK219477
A form of the substance epothilone that is made in the laboratory. It is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Epothilone ZK2219477 stops the growth of tumor cells by blocking cell division. It is a type of antimitotic agent.
epothilone ZK219477
A form of the substance epothilone that is made in the laboratory. It is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. Epothilone ZK2219477 stops the growth of tumor cells by blocking cell division. It is a type of antimitotic agent.
epratuzumab
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies.
epratuzumab
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies.
Epstein-Barr virus
A common virus that remains dormant in most people. It causes infectious mononucleosis and has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Also called EBV.
Epstein-Barr virus
A common virus that remains dormant in most people. It causes infectious mononucleosis and has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Also called EBV.
EPT
Treatment that generates electrical pulses through an electrode placed in a tumor to enhance the ability of anticancer drugs to enter tumor cells. Also called electroporation therapy.
EPT
Treatment that generates electrical pulses through an electrode placed in a tumor to enhance the ability of anticancer drugs to enter tumor cells. Also called electroporation therapy.
ER
A protein found inside the cells of the female reproductive tissue, some other types of tissue, and some cancer cells. The hormone estrogen will bind to the receptors inside the cells and may cause the cells to grow. Also called estrogen receptor.
ER
A protein found inside the cells of the female reproductive tissue, some other types of tissue, and some cancer cells. The hormone estrogen will bind to the receptors inside the cells and may cause the cells to grow. Also called estrogen receptor.
ER+
Describes cells that have a receptor protein that binds the hormone estrogen. Cancer cells that are ER+ may need estrogen to grow, and may stop growing or die when treated with substances that block the binding and actions of estrogen. Also called estrogen receptor positive.
ER+
Describes cells that have a receptor protein that binds the hormone estrogen. Cancer cells that are ER+ may need estrogen to grow, and may stop growing or die when treated with substances that block the binding and actions of estrogen. Also called estrogen receptor positive.
ER-
Describes cells that do not have a protein to which the hormone estrogen will bind. Cancer cells that are ER- do not need estrogen to grow, and usually do not stop growing when treated with hormones that block estrogen from binding. Also called estrogen receptor negative.
ER-
Describes cells that do not have a protein to which the hormone estrogen will bind. Cancer cells that are ER- do not need estrogen to grow, and usually do not stop growing when treated with hormones that block estrogen from binding. Also called estrogen receptor negative.
ER-negative PR-negative HER2/neu-negative
Describes breast cancer cells that do not have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or large amounts of HER2/neu protein. Also called ER-PR-HER2/neu- and triple-negative breast cancer.
ER-negative PR-negative HER2/neu-negative breast cancer
Describes breast cancer cells that do not have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or large amounts of HER2/neu protein. Also called triple-negative breast cancer.
ER-PR-HER2/neu-
Describes breast cancer cells that do not have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or large amounts of HER2/neu protein. Also called ER-negative PR-negative HER2/neu-negative and triple-negative breast cancer.
ERA-923
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to a family of drugs called antiestrogens.
ERA-923
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to a family of drugs called antiestrogens.
erb-38 immunotoxin
A toxic substance linked to an antibody that attaches to tumor cells and kills them.
erb-38 immunotoxin
A toxic substance linked to an antibody that attaches to tumor cells and kills them.
ErbB1
The protein found on the surface of some cells and to which epidermal growth factor binds, causing the cells to divide. It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor. Also called EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor, and HER1.
ErbB1
The protein found on the surface of some cells and to which epidermal growth factor binds, causing the cells to divide. It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor. Also called EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor, and HER1.
Erbitux
A monoclonal antibody used to treat certain types of head and neck cancer, and colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to cancer cells. Erbitux binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is found on the surface of some types of cancer cells. Also called cetuximab.
Erbitux
A drug used to treat certain types of head and neck cancer, and a certain type of colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Erbitux binds to a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is on the surface of some types of cancer cells. This may stop cancer cells from growing. Erbitux is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called cetuximab.
ERCP
A procedure that uses an endoscope to examine and x-ray the pancreatic duct, hepatic duct, common bile duct, duodenal papilla, and gallbladder. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. The endoscope is passed through the mouth and down into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A smaller tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope into the bile and pancreatic ducts. A dye is injected through the catheter into the ducts, and an x-ray is taken. Also called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
ERCP
A procedure that uses an endoscope to examine and x-ray the pancreatic duct, hepatic duct, common bile duct, duodenal papilla, and gallbladder. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. The endoscope is passed through the mouth and down into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A smaller tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope into the bile and pancreatic ducts. A dye is injected through the catheter into the ducts, and an x-ray is taken. Also called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
erectile dysfunction
An inability to have an erection of the penis adequate for sexual intercourse. Also called impotence.
erectile dysfunction
An inability to have an erection of the penis adequate for sexual intercourse. Also called impotence.
erection
In medicine, the swelling of the penis with blood, causing it to become firm.
erection
In medicine, the swelling of the penis with blood, causing it to become firm.
ergocalciferol
A form of vitamin D that helps the body use calcium and phosphorus to make strong bones and teeth. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in plants and yeast. It can be made in the body from another form of vitamin D when the body is exposed to the sun. Ergocalciferol is also made in the laboratory. It is used to prevent and to treat vitamin D deficiency. It is a type of dietary supplement. Also called vitamin D2.
ergocalciferol
A form of vitamin D that helps the body use calcium and phosphorus to make strong bones and teeth. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in plants and yeast. It can be made in the body from another form of vitamin D when the body is exposed to the sun. Ergocalciferol is also made in the laboratory. It is used to prevent and to treat vitamin D deficiency. It is a type of dietary supplement. Also called vitamin D2.
eribulin mesylate
A drug used to treat metastatic breast cancer in patients who have already been treated with other chemotherapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Eribulin mesylate may block cancer cell growth by stopping cell division. It belongs to the family of drugs called antitubulin agents. Also called E7389 and Halaven.
eribulin mesylate
A drug used to treat metastatic breast cancer in patients who have already been treated with other chemotherapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Eribulin mesylate may block cancer cell growth by stopping cell division. It belongs to the family of drugs called antitubulin agents. Also called E7389 and Halaven.
Erivedge
A drug used to treat advanced basal cell carcinoma that has spread to other parts of the body or has come back after surgery. It is also used in patients who cannot be treated with surgery or radiation therapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Erivedge blocks a type of protein involved in tissue growth and repair and may block the growth of cancer cells. It is a type of Hedgehog signaling pathway antagonist. Also called GDC-0449 and vismodegib.
erlotinib
A drug used to treat certain types of non-small cell lung cancer. It is also used together with gemcitabine to treat pancreatic cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Erlotinib is a type of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called CP-358,774, erlotinib hydrochloride, OSI-774, and Tarceva.
erlotinib hydrochloride
A drug used to treat certain types of non-small cell lung cancer. It is also used together with gemcitabine to treat pancreatic cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Erlotinib hydrochloride is a type of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called CP-358,774, erlotinib, OSI-774, and Tarceva.
erlotinib hydrochloride
A drug used to treat certain types of non-small cell lung cancer. It is also used with gemcitabine hydrochloride to treat pancreatic cancer that cannot be removed by surgery or has spread to other parts of the body. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Erlotinib hydrochloride blocks a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which may help keep cancer cells from growing. It is a type of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called CP-358,774, OSI-774, and Tarceva.
ERMS
A soft tissue tumor that is most common in infants and young children. It begins in muscles, usually in the head, neck, or genitourinary tract. Also called embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
ERMS
A soft tissue tumor that is most common in infants and young children. It begins in muscles, usually in the head, neck, or genitourinary tract. Also called embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
ERT
Hormones given to postmenopausal women or to women who have had their ovaries surgically removed. Hormones are given to replace the estrogen no longer produced by the ovaries. Also called estrogen replacement therapy.
ERT
Treatment with the hormone estrogen to increase the amount of estrogen in the body. It is given to women who have gone through menopause or to women who have early menopause caused by cancer treatment or by having their ovaries removed by surgery. ERT may help relieve symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and sleep problems. It may also help protect against osteoporosis (thinning of the bones) and lower the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Also called estrogen replacement therapy.
ERUS
A procedure in which a probe that sends out high-energy sound waves is inserted into the rectum. The sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissue called a sonogram. ERUS is used to look for abnormalities in the rectum and nearby structures, including the prostate. Also called endorectal ultrasound, transrectal ultrasound, and TRUS.
ERUS
A procedure in which a probe that sends out high-energy sound waves is inserted into the rectum. The sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissue called a sonogram. ERUS is used to look for abnormalities in the rectum and nearby structures, including the prostate. Also called endorectal ultrasound, transrectal ultrasound, and TRUS.
Erwinaze
A drug used with other anticancer drugs to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is an enzyme that comes from the Erwinia chrysanthemi bacterium. It is used in patients who cannot take a similar drug that comes from the E. coli bacterium. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It breaks down the amino acid asparagine and may block the growth of cancer cells that need asparagine to grow. It may also kill cancer cells. Also called asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi.
erythema
Redness of the skin.
erythema
Redness of the skin.
erythrocyte
A cell that carries oxygen to all parts of the body. Also called RBC and red blood cell.
erythrocyte
A type of blood cell that is made in the bone marrow and found in the blood. Erythrocytes contain a protein called hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. Checking the number of erythrocytes in the blood is usually part of a complete blood cell (CBC) test. It may be used to look for conditions such as anemia, dehydration, malnutrition, and leukemia. Also called RBC and red blood cell.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
The distance red blood cells travel in one hour in a sample of blood as they settle to the bottom of a test tube. The sedimentation rate is increased in inflammation, infection, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Also called ESR and sedimentation rate.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
The distance red blood cells travel in one hour in a sample of blood as they settle to the bottom of a test tube. The sedimentation rate is increased in inflammation, infection, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Also called ESR and sedimentation rate.
erythrodysplasia
A condition in which immature red blood cells (erythroid cells) in the bone marrow are abnormal in size, shape, organization, and/or number. Erythrodysplasia may be caused by vitamin deficiency or chemotherapy, or it may be a sign of refractory anemia, which is a myelodysplastic syndrome. Also called erythroid dysplasia.
erythrodysplasia
A condition in which immature red blood cells (erythroid cells) in the bone marrow are abnormal in size, shape, organization, and/or number. Erythrodysplasia may be caused by vitamin deficiency or chemotherapy, or it may be a sign of refractory anemia, which is a myelodysplastic syndrome. Also called erythroid dysplasia.
erythrogenesis imperfecta
A very rare disorder in which the bone marrow doesn
erythrogenesis imperfecta
erythroid dysplasia
A condition in which immature red blood cells (erythroid cells) in the bone marrow are abnormal in size, shape, organization, and/or number. Erythroid dysplasia may be caused by vitamin deficiency or chemotherapy, or it may be a sign of refractory anemia, which is a myelodysplastic syndrome. Also called erythrodysplasia.
erythroid dysplasia
A condition in which immature red blood cells (erythroid cells) in the bone marrow are abnormal in size, shape, organization, and/or number. Erythroid dysplasia may be caused by vitamin deficiency or chemotherapy, or it may be a sign of refractory anemia, which is a myelodysplastic syndrome. Also called erythrodysplasia.
erythroleukemia
Cancer of the blood-forming tissues in which large numbers of immature, abnormal red blood cells are found in the blood and bone marrow.
erythroleukemia
Cancer of the blood-forming tissues in which large numbers of immature, abnormal red blood cells are found in the blood and bone marrow.
erythroleukoplakia
An abnormal patch of red and white tissue that forms on mucous membranes in the mouth and may become cancer. Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of erythroleukoplakia.
erythroleukoplakia
An abnormal patch of red and white tissue that forms on mucous membranes in the mouth and may become cancer. Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of erythroleukoplakia.
erythroplakia
An abnormal patch of red tissue that forms on mucous membranes in the mouth and may become cancer. Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of erythroplakia.
erythroplakia
An abnormal patch of red tissue that forms on mucous membranes in the mouth and may become cancer. Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of erythroplakia.
erythropoiesis
The formation of red blood cells in blood-forming tissue. In the early development of a fetus, erythropoiesis takes place in the yolk sac, spleen, and liver. After birth, all erythropoiesis occurs in the bone marrow.
erythropoiesis-stimulating agent
A substance that stimulates the bone marrow to make more red blood cells. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are used to treat anemia caused by chronic kidney failure, some anticancer drugs, and certain treatments for HIV. They may also be used to lower the number of blood transfusions needed during and after certain major surgeries. Examples of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit) and darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp). Also called ESA.
erythropoietin
A substance that is naturally produced by the kidneys, and that stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. When erythropoietin is made in the laboratory, it is called epoetin alfa or epoetin beta.
erythropoietin
A substance that is naturally produced by the kidneys, and that stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. When erythropoietin is made in the laboratory, it is called epoetin alfa or epoetin beta.
ESA
A substance that stimulates the bone marrow to make more red blood cells. ESAs are used to treat anemia caused by chronic kidney failure, some anticancer drugs, and certain treatments for HIV. They may also be used to lower the number of blood transfusions needed during and after certain major surgeries. Examples of ESAs are epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit) and darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp). Also called erythropoiesis-stimulating agent.
escitalopram
A drug used to treat depression and certain anxiety disorders. It belongs to the family of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Also called Lexapro.
escitalopram
A drug used to treat depression and certain anxiety disorders. It belongs to the family of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Also called Lexapro.
esomeprazole
A drug that blocks acid from being made in the stomach. It is used to treat acid reflux disease and to prevent certain types of gastrointestinal ulcers. Esomeprazole is being studied in the prevention of esophageal cancer and in the treatment of other conditions, including side effects of chemotherapy. It is a type of anti-ulcer agent. Also called esomeprazole magnesium and Nexium.
esomeprazole
A drug that blocks acid from being made in the stomach. It is used to treat acid reflux disease and to prevent certain types of gastrointestinal ulcers. Esomeprazole is being studied in the prevention of esophageal cancer and in the treatment of other conditions, including side effects of chemotherapy. It is a type of anti-ulcer agent. Also called esomeprazole magnesium and Nexium.
esomeprazole magnesium
A drug that blocks acid from being made in the stomach. It is used to treat acid reflux disease and to prevent certain types of gastrointestinal ulcers. Esomeprazole magnesium is being studied in the prevention of esophageal cancer and in the treatment of other conditions, including side effects of chemotherapy. It is a type of anti-ulcer agent. Also called esomeprazole and Nexium.
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