Drug Dictionary

dendritic cell-gp100-MART-1 antigen vaccine
An autologous dendritic cell vaccine with antineoplastic property. Dendritic cells harvested from cancer patients are pulsed with human gp100 melanoma antigen and MART-1 antigen (a melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells); both antigens are up-regulated in melanomas. Vaccination with this vaccine may elicit the host immune response against MART-1 or gp100 expressing cells.
dendritic cell-idiotype-keyhole limpet hemocyanin vaccine
A cell-based vaccine composed of allogeneic dendritic cells (DC), pulsed with patient-specific non-Hodgkin's lymphoma idiotype (Id) determinants conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration, this vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against Id-expressing lymphoma cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis.
dendritic cell-MART-1 peptide vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of dendritic cells harvested from a patient with cancer and pulsed or transduced with a peptide fragment of MART-1 (melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells), an antigen expressed by melanoma cells. When the altered dendritic cells are returned to the patient, they stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response against tumor cells expressing MART-1.
denenicokin
A recombinant peptide similar to or identical to endogenous human cytokine interleukin-21 (IL-21) with potential antineoplastic activity. Denenicokin binds to and activates IL-21 receptors, expressed on T-cells, B-cells, dendritic cells (DC), and natural killer (NK) cells, modulating the proliferation and/or differentiation of T and B cells, promoting T cell survival, and increasing the cytolytic activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cells.
denibulin hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt of denibulin, a small molecular vascular disrupting agent, with potential antimitotic and antineoplastic activities. Denibulin selectively targets and reversibly binds to the colchicine-binding site on tubulin and inhibits microtubule assembly. This results in the disruption of the cytoskeleton of tumor endothelial cells, ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest, blockage of cell division and apoptosis. This causes inadequate blood flow to the tumor and eventually leads to a decrease in tumor cell proliferation., a small molecule vascular disrupting agent (VDA), with potential antimitotic and antineoplastic activity. Denibulin selectively targets and reversibly binds to the colchicine-binding site on tubulin and inhibits microtubule assembly. This results in the disruption of the cytoskeleton of tumor endothelial cells (EC), ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest, blockage of cell division and apoptosis. This causes inadequate blood flow to the tumor and eventually leads to a decrease in tumor cell proliferation.
deoxycytidine analogue TAS-109
An analogue of the nucleoside deoxycytidine with potential antineoplastic activity. Nucleoside analogue TAS-109 is incorporated into DNA and directly inhibits the activity of DNA polymerase, which may result in inhibition of DNA replication and cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases, DNA fragmentation, and tumor cell apoptosis.
Depade
(Other name for: naltrexone hydrochloride)
depAndro
(Other name for: testosterone cypionate)
DEPDC1/MPHOSH1 peptide vaccine
A cancer vaccine containing HLA-A*2402-restricted epitopes derived from DEP domain containing 1 (DEPDC1) and M phase phosphoprotein 1 (MPHOSPH1) with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, DEPDC1/MPHOSH1 peptide vaccine may elicit a specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing DEPDC1 and MPHOSPH1, tumor antigens that are overexpressed in bladder cancer cells.HLA-A*2402 is an MHC class I molecule that presents antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells; epitope design restricted to epitopes that bind most efficiently to HLA-A*2402 may improve antigenic peptide immunogenicity.
Depen
(Other name for: penicillamine)
Depo-Medrol
(Other name for: methylprednisolone)
Depo-Provera
(Other name for: medroxyprogesterone)
Depo-Testosterone
(Other name for: testosterone cypionate)
DepoCyt
(Other name for: liposomal cytarabine)
Depotest
(Other name for: testosterone cypionate)
derma-membrane-structure topical cream
A topical cream formulation containing physiological lipids with potential anti-xerotic activity. Derma-membrane-structure topical cream contains ingredients that mirror the lipid component of the the skin, including hydrated phosphatidyl choline, but does not contain conventional emulsifiers that may disrupt the skin-lipid barrier. This cream can also be used as a vehicle or base for topically applied medications.
Dermacort
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
DermaMatrix
(Other name for: acelullar cadaveric dermal matrix)
Deronil
(Other name for: dexamethasone)
Desferal
(Other name for: deferoxamine mesylate)
desflurane
A fluorinated ether with general anesthetic and muscle relaxant activities. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been established, desflurane, administered by inhalation, appears to act on the lipid matirx of the neuronal membrane, resulting in disruption of neuronal transmission in the brain. This agent may also enhance the synaptic activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
desipramine hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt form of desipramine, a secondary amine tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). In the central nervous system (CNS), desipramine hydrochloride blocks the re-uptake of neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine and serotonin. This leads to an increase in the amount of these neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft and prolongs their activities postsynaptically.
desmopressin acetate
An analogue of the hormone vasopressin with antidiuretic and antihemorrhagic properties. Desmopressin acetate has selective affinity for the V2 receptor and acts on the distal kidney tubule by increasing the cellular permeability thereby stimulating water reabsorption. This antidiuretic agent is used in the treatment of central diabetes insipidus. An unrelated action of desmopressin acetate is to increases circulating factor VIII and is used in patients with haemophilia and von Willebrand's disease.
desogestral
A synthetic progestogen structurally related to levonorgestrel, with progesterone hormone receptor agonistic activity, used as a contraceptive and hormone replacement agent. Upon administration, desogestrel binds intracellular progesterone receptors in progesterone responsive tissue and the resultant complex interacts with DNA causing either gene transcription or gene repression. This eventually leads to an inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus and a subsequent inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release. This prevents ovulation and alters the cervical mucus.
desvenlafaxine succinate
The succinate salt form of desvenlafaxine, a synthetic phenethylamine bicyclic derivative with antidepressant activity. Desvenlafaxine is a selective reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine due to its high binding affinities to the pre-synaptic serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. By blocking both transporters, this agent prolongs neurotransmitter activities of both serotonin and norepinephrine, thereby alleviating depressive state.
detorubicin
A semi-synthetic derivative of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic daunorubicin. Detorubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent also produces toxic free-radical intermediates and interacts with cell membrane lipids causing lipid peroxidation. Detorubicin is less toxic than daunorubicin.
Detox-B adjuvant
A cancer vaccine adjuvant that consists of an oil droplet emulsion of monophosphoryl lipid A and mycobacterial cell wall skeleton. Detox-B adjuvant is a non-specific immunostimulant that may enhance the host immune response to certain cancer vaccines. Detox-B differs from Detox adjuvant in that Detox-B contains lecithin.
DetoxPC
A detoxified, nonspecific immunostimulant consisting of a combination of the active monophosphoryl lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from the bacterium Salmonella minnesota combined with a residue of the cell wall of the bacterium Mycobacterium phlei. Detox-PC differs from Detox adjuvant and Detox-B in that Detox-PC contains egg phosphatidylcholine and alpha-tocopherol.
deuterated 3-methylhistidine
A derivative of the amino acid histidine labeled with heavy hydrogen (D) used in diagnostic procedures. Upon intake of deuterated 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), this agent is incorporated into muscle protein and then is subsequently excreted unchanged in the urine. By measuring the amount of 3-MH in the urine, via analysis of deuterium, the rate of protein muscle catabolism can be determined and the risk of skeletal muscle atrophy or cachexia can be assessed. 3-methylhistidine is a myofibrillar-specific amino acid and is mainly found in muscle myosin and actin; proteolysis of myofibrils releases 3-MH that is excreted unchanged in the urine.
deuterated phenanthrene
A noncarcinogenic and structural analogue of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), phenanthrene labeled with deuterium ([D10]Phe) with potential use in assessing an individuals capacity for PAH metabolism by the diol epoxide pathway. Upon oral or inhalation administration, [D10]Phe is metabolized into the tetraol end product ([D10]PheT) via the diol epoxide pathway, and can be quantified in urine. [D10]PheT can be used as a biomarker to assess PAHs metabolic activation and may therefore determine an individuals susceptibility to carcinogenicity upon PAH exposure.
deuterium oxide
A stable, non-radioactive isotopic form of water, containing 2 atoms of deuterium (D) and one atom of oxygen (2D2O), with DNA-labeling activity. Upon ingestion of deuterium oxide, 2H is incorporated into the deoxyribose moiety of DNA of newly divided cells. Rapidly dividing cells, as in the case of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), can be labeled with deuterium oxide and measured using gas chromatography and/or mass spectrometry.
Dex-4
(Other name for: dexamethasone)
Dexace
(Other name for: dexamethasone)
Dexameth
(Other name for: dexamethasone)
dexamethasone intravitreal implant
An intravitreal implant containing the corticosteroid dexamethasone embedded in a biodegradable polymer matrix, with anti-inflammatory and macular edema-relieving activity. Upon insertion into the vitreous cavity, dexamethasone intravitreal implant is dissolved slowly and dexamethasone is released over an extended period of time. Dexamethasone inhibits inflammation thereby preventing leakage from the capillaries and a reduction of retinal edema. This may ultimately prevent vision impairment.
dexanabinol
A synthetic, terpene-based cannabinoid derivative devoid of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 agonist activity and with potential neuroprotective, antiinflammatory and antineoplastic activities. Functioning as an N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, dexanabinol protects neuronal cells against NMDA and glutamate neurotoxicity. This agent also scavenges peroxy radicals and protects neurons from the damages of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, dexanabinol inhibits the activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), thereby preventing the expression of NF-kB target genes, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase. As a result, this agent may restore apoptotic processes in cancerous cells. NF-kB is activated in a variety of cancer cells and plays a key role in the regulation of apoptosis and cellular proliferation.
dexmedetomidine hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt form of dexmedetomidine, an imidazole derivate and active d-isomer of medetomidine with analgesic, anxiolytic and sedative activities. Dexmedetomidine selectively binds to and activates presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors located in the brain, thereby inhibiting the release of norepinephrine from synaptic vesicles. This leads to an inhibition of postsynaptic activation of adrenoceptors, which inhibits sympathetic activity, thereby leading to analgesia, sedation and anxiolysis.
dexpanthenol cream
An alcoholic analogue of D-pantothenic acid and cholinergic agent. Dexpanthenol acts as a precursor of coenzyme A necessary for acetylation reactions and is involved in the synthesis of acetylcholine. Although the exact mechanism of the actions of dexpanthenol is unclear, it may enhance the effect of acetylcholine. Dexpanthenol acts on the gastrointestinal tract and increases lower intestinal motility. It is also applied topically to the skin to relieve itching and to promote healing.
dexpanthenol mouthwash
A mouthwash containing 5% dexpanthenol, the alcoholic analogue of the dextrorotatory isomer of pantothenic acid with potential antimucositis activity. Although the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated, upon rinsing with this solution dexpanthenol is converted to pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) which is required for coenzyme A synthesis as well as for the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Coenzyme A is involved in fatty acids and sphingolipids synthesis crucial for cell membrane integrity. This mouthwash may have a protective and healing effect on the oral mucosa, may improve hydration and may potentially prevent or reduce radiation/chemotherapy-induced mucositis.
dextromethorphan hydrobromide
The hydrobromide salt form of dextromethorphan, a synthetic, methylated dextrorotary analogue of levorphanol, a substance related to codeine and a non-opioid derivate of morphine. Dextromethorphan exhibits antitussive activity and is devoid of analgesic or addictive property. This agent crosses the blood-brain-barrier and activates sigma opioid receptors on the cough center in the central nervous system, thereby suppressing the cough reflex.
dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt of the d-isomer of the synthetic opiate propoxyphene with weak narcotic analgesic activity. Dextropropoxyphene mimics the effects of endogenous opiates by binding to mu receptors located throughout the central nervous system. The binding results in GTP to GDP exchanges on the mu-G-protein complex, by which the effector adenylate cyclase is inactivated, decreasing intracellular cAMP. This, in turn, inhibits the release of various nociceptive neurotransmitters, such as substance P, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, vasopressin, and somatostatin. In addition, dextropropoxyphene closes N-type voltage-gated calcium channels and opens calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels, which results in neuronal hyperpolarization, a reduction in neuronal excitability, and a further decrease in the perception of pain.
dexverapamil
The R-enantiomer of the calcium channel blocker verapamil. Dexverapamil competitively inhibits the multidrug resistance efflux pump P-glycoprotein (MDR-1), thereby potentially increasing the effectiveness of a wide range of antineoplastic drugs which are inactivated by MDR-1 mechanisms. This agent exhibits decreased calcium antagonistic activity and toxicity compared to racemic verapamil.
Dezone
(Other name for: dexamethasone)
DHAP regimen
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine (ARA-C) and cisplatin (Platinol), used for the treatment of relapsed and refractory Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
DHEA mustard
A steroidal alkylating agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Alkylating agents exert cytotoxic and, in some cases, chemotherapeutic effects by transferring alkyl groups to DNA, thereby damaging DNA and interfering with DNA replication and cell division.
dHER2+AS15 vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of a truncated recombinant HER2/neu peptide (dHER2) combined with the immunoadjuvant AS15 with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, dHER2+AS15 vaccine may stimulate the host immune response to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that overexpress the HER2/neu protein, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The tumor-associated antigen (TAA) HER2/neu is often overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types; dHER2 includes amino acids 1-645 or 1-653 of the extracellular domain (ECD) and an immunogenic carboxyl terminal autophosphorylation portion of the intracellular domain (ICD). AS15 is an adjuvant formulation that contains the adjuvant systems AS01B and AS07A; AS01 B is composed of liposomes containing 3D-MPL and QS21 and AS07A is composed of the synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) agonist CpG 7909.
DI-Leu16-IL2 immunocytokine
A recombinant fusion protein consisting of de-immunized and humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Leu16 fused to human cytokine interleukin-2 (IL2) with potential antineoplastic activity. The antibody moiety of DI-Leu16-IL2 immunocytokine binds to tumor cells expressing the CD20 antigen, which may result in an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) towards CD20-expressing tumor cells; the localized IL2 moiety of this fusion protein may stimulate natural killer (NK) and T-lymphocyte mediated immune responses, enhancing the ADCC response. De-immunization involves the modification of potential helper T cell epitopes that bind to MHC class II molecules; humanization involves combining recombinant murine variable (V) regions with human immunoglobulin light and heavy chain constant regions. CD20 antigen, a hydrophobic transmembrane protein located on normal pre-B and mature B lymphocytes, is overexpressed by various cancer cell types.
diammonium glycyrrhizinate
The diammonium salt of glycyrrhizin and the active constituent in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese liquorice or Gan-Cao) with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) is slowly metabolized within the cells into glycyrrhetic acid, which inhibits enzymes that control cortisol metabolism and contributes to this agent's anti-inflammatory effect. Although the exact mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated, DG may prevent or reduce hepatotoxicity via the scavenging of free radicals. This agent also upregulates the expression of transcription coactivator PGC-1alpha and modulates hepatic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), superoxide dismutase and glutathion peroxidase.
dianhydrogalactitol
A bifunctional hexitol derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Dianhydrogalactitol alkylates and cross-links DNA via an epoxide group during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function and cell cycle arrest.
Diastyl
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
diazepinomicin
A small-molecule inhibitor of the RAS/RAF/MAPK signaling pathway with potential antineoplastic activity. Diazepinomicin binds to and inhibits Ras kinase, thereby preventing the phosphorylation and activation of proteins downstream of the Ras signal transduction pathway, including serine/threonine kinase RAF (BRAF) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1 and ERK-2). This agent also selectively binds to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a receptor highly expressed in certain tumor cell types cells, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PBR-expressing cells. Diazepinomicin can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
diazooxonorleucine
An L-glutamine diazo analogue amino acid antibiotic isolated from a species of the bacterial genus Streptomyces with potential antineoplastic activity. Diazooxonorleucine inhibits several glutamine-dependent biosynthetic pathways involved in the the syntheses of D-glucosamine phosphate, purines and pyrimidines. This agent inhibits phosphate-activated glutaminase, a key enzyme for the synthesis of releasable glutamine, depleting cells of this essential amino acid and reducing their capacity to proliferate.
diazoxide
A benzothiadiazine derivate with antihypertensive and hyperglycemic activities. Diazoxide increases membrane permeability to potassium ions in vascular smooth muscle, thereby stabilizing the membrane action potential and preventing vascular smooth muscle contraction; this results in peripheral vasodilatation and decreases in peripheral vascular resistance. This agent also inhibits insulin release by interacting with ATP-sensitive potassium channels of pancreatic islet beta-cells.
Dibenzyline
(Other name for: phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride)
dichloromethotrexate
A chlorinated methotrexate derivative. Dichloromethotrexate inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, thereby preventing the synthesis of purine nucleotides and thymidylates and inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent is metabolized and excreted by the liver.
didemnin B
A cyclic depsipeptide extracted from the Caribbean tunicate Trididemnum cyanophorum. Didemnin B activates caspase, thereby inducing apoptosis, and prevents eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2)-dependent translocation, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. This agent also has immunosuppressive and antiviral properties.
dideoxyadenosine
A synthetic nucleoside analogue of deoxyadenosine and a prodrug of didanosine in which the 3' hydroxyl group on the ribose moiety is replaced by a hydrogen atom. Dideoxyadenosine competitively inhibits adenylyl cyclase, thereby reducing levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). By inhibiting cAMP-mediated gene activation in tumor cells, this agent may retard tumor cell proliferation.
dienogest
An orally-active, semisynthetic, fourth generation, nonethinylated progestogen with potential antiproliferative, antiandrogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities that is used in hormone therapy and as a female contraceptive. Upon oral administration, dienogest binds intracellular progesterone receptors which then translocate to the nucleus where the drug-receptor complex interacts with progesterone response elements, thus altering the expression of target genes. Dienogest reduces the production of estradiol, prevents ovulation and alters the cervical mucus and endometrium. In addition, dienogest appears to suppress the expression of cell cycle regulator cyclin D1. Altogether, this may prevent the growth of endometrial epithelial cells and may reduce symptoms associated with leiomyoma.
diethyldithiocarbamate
A sulfhydryl-containing carbamate that is the primary in vivo metabolite of disulfiram. Diethyldithiocarbamate chelates zinc, thereby inhibiting metalloproteinases, thereby preventing the degradation of the extracellular matrix and inhibiting an initial step in cancer metastasis and angiogenesis. A known inhibitor of superoxide dismutase, this agent can either potentiate or protect against cell oxidative damage caused by ionizing radiation, depending on the time of administration.
Difflam
(Other name for: benzydamine hydrochloride)
Diflucan
(Other name for: fluconazole)
diflunisal
A difluorophenyl derivate of salicylic acid and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Diflunisal competitively inhibits both cyclooxygenase (COX) -1 and -2, with higher affinity for COX-1, and subsequently blocks the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin precursors. This leads to an inhibition of the formation of prostaglandins that are involved in pain, inflammation and fever. Diflunisal differs from other salicylates, in that it is not metabolized to salicylic acid, hence it has a longer half-life.
dihydro-5-azacytidine
A synthetic nucleoside analogue of deoxycytidine. Dihydro-5-azacytidine inhibits DNA methyltransferase, thereby interfering with abnormal DNA methylation patterns that are associated with genetic instability in some tumor cells. Inhibition of this enzyme may restore expression of tumor-suppressor genes and result in antitumor activity.
dihydrolenperone
A butyrophenone that has been investigated for antineoplastic activity.
Dilaudid
(Other name for: hydromorphone hydrochloride)
Dilaudid HP
(Other name for: hydromorphone hydrochloride)
diltiazem hydrochloride
A benzothiazepine calcium channel blocking agent. Diltiazem hydrochloride inhibits the transmembrane influx of extracellular calcium ions into select myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cells, causing dilatation of coronary and systemic arteries and decreasing myocardial contractility. Because of its vasodilatory activity, this agent has been shown to improve the microcirculation in some tumors, thereby potentially improving the delivery of antineoplastic agents to tumor cells.
dimerizer drug AP1903
A lipid-permeable tacrolimus analogue with homodimerizing activity. Dimerizer drug AP1903 homodimerizes an analogue of human protein FKBP12 (Fv) which contains a single acid substitution (Phe36Val) so that AP1903 binds to wild-type FKBP12 with 1000-fold lower affinity. This agent is used to homodimerize the Fv-containing drug-binding domains of genetically engineered receptors such as the iCD40 receptor of the autologous dendritic cell vaccine BP-GMAX-CD1, resulting in receptor activation.
dimethylbusulfan
An aliphatic analogue of busulfan with potential antineoplastic activity. As an alkylating agent, dimethylbusulfan induces neutropenia and has been shown to exhibit antitumor effects in some animal models. Alkylating agents exert cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic effects by transferring alkyl groups to DNA, thereby damaging DNA and interfering with DNA synthesis and cell division.
Dimorphone
(Other name for: hydromorphone hydrochloride)
dinitrophenyl
A small molecule containing 2 phenol rings, characterized as a hapten for use in vaccine preparation. Dinitrophenyl by itself will not elicit any immune response nor bind to antigen. Dinitrophenyl compound is commonly used to couple with peptides in vaccine preparation to enhance the immunogenicity of otherwise weak immunogenic antigens.
dinoprost tromethamine
A synthetic analogue of the naturally occurring prostaglandin F2 alpha. Prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates myometrial activity, relaxes the cervix, inhibits corpus luteal steroidogenesis, and induces luteolysis by direct action on the corpus luteum.
Diovan
(Other name for: valsartan)
diphencyprone
A synthetic, potent allergic contact sensitizer with potential immunostimulatory activity. After sensitization process by repeated topical application of diphencyprone to a specific area, further application of this agent to the affected area may stimulate an immune response and may potentially be useful to clear the affected area from infection or cancer.
diphenhydramine hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt form of diphenhydramine, an ethanolamine and first-generation histamine antagonist with anti-allergic activity. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride competitively blocks H1receptors, thereby preventing the actions of histamine on bronchial smooth muscle, capillaries, and gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. This prevents histamine-induced bronchoconstriction, vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, and GI smooth muscle spasms.
diphenhydramine hydrochloride/dexamethasone/nystatin magic mouthwash
An oral suspension containing diphenydramine hydrochloride, dexamethasone and nystatin, with anithistaminic, antiinflammatory, and antifungal activities. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride/dexamethasone/nystatin magic mouthwash inhibits the cytokine-mediated inflammation and yeast colonization of the oral mucosa associated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
diphtheria toxin/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed
A vaccine containing detoxified tetanus toxoid, detoxified diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis antigens, adsorbed on aluminum phosphate, with active immunizing activity against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. The acellular pertussis vaccine components, produced by Bordetella pertussis, are detoxified pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN) and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM). Intramuscular injection with this vaccine activates the immune system to develop antibodies against tetanus toxin, diphtheria toxin and B. pertussis antigens.
diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid vaccine adsorbed
A vaccine containing detoxified tetanus toxoid and detoxified diphtheria toxoid adsorbed on aluminum phosphate with active immunizing activity against diphtheria and tetanus. Intramuscular injection with this vaccine activates the immune system to develop antibodies against tetanus toxin and diphtheria toxin.
diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis adsorbed, recombinant hepatitis B/inactivated poliovirus vaccine combined
A vaccine consisting of detoxified tetanus toxoid, detoxified diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis antigens, inactivated poliovirus (IPV) types 1,2 and 3 and hepatitis B (HBV) surface antigen, with active immunizing activities against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and poliomyelitis. The acellular pertussis components in this vaccine, produced by Bordetella pertussis, are detoxified pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN). Upon intramuscular injection, this vaccine activates the immune system to develop antibodies against tetanus toxin, diphtheria toxin, B. pertussis antigens, polioviruses and HBV. The diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis antigens (inactivated PT, FHA, and pertactin) are adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide; the hepatitis B antigen is adsorbed onto aluminum phosphate.
Diprivan
(Other name for: propofol)
disaccharide tripeptide glycerol dipalmitoyl
A lipophilic disaccharide tripeptide derivative of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) with immunomodulatory activity. Disaccharide tripeptide glycerol dipalmitoyl (DTP-GDP)stimulates macrophage activity and increases serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), neopterin, interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12, which may activate host immune system antitumor functions. DTP-GDP may be packaged in liposomes for improved delivery. The immunomodulatory effects of this agent may be superior to those of MDP.
Disalcid
(Other name for: sodium salicylate)
distilled water
An ultra-pure form of water with potential antineoplastic activity. Derived by boiling impure water and condensing the resultant steam in a sterile container, distilled water has been shown to kill bladder cancer cells in vitro through osmotic lysis (cytolysis).
DM-CHOC-PEN
A cholesterol carbonate derivative of 4-demethylpenclomedine (DM-PEN) with potential antineoplastic alkylating activity. Upon intravenous administration of 4-demethylcholesteryloxycarbonylpenclomedine, the carbonium moiety binds to and alkylates DNA at the N7 guanine position, thereby causing DNA crosslinks. This prevents DNA replication, inhibits cellular proliferation and triggers apoptosis. In addition, due to its lipophilic cholesteryl moiety this agent is able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and therefore can be given intravenously compared to other alkylating agents that need to be given intra-cranially.
DM4-conjugated anti-Cripto monoclonal antibody BIIB015
A humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface-associated protein Cripto and conjugated to the maytansinoid DM4 with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of DM4-conjugated anti-Cripto monoclonal antibody BIIB015 binds to the tumor associated antigen (TAA) Cripto; upon internalization, the DM4 moiety binds to tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, resulting in inhibition of cell division and cell growth of Cripto-expressing tumor cells. Constitutively expressed during embryogenesis, Cripto belongs to the EGF-CFC family of growth factor-like molecules and plays a key role in signaling pathways of certain transforming growth factor-beta superfamily members; as a TAA, Cripto is overexpressed in carcinomas such as those of the breast, ovary, stomach, lung, and pancreas while its expression is absent in normal tissues.
DNA interference oligonucleotide PNT2258
A liposomal formulation of the 24-mer oligonucleotide PNT100, with potential antineoplastic activity. PNT2258 targets and complements to untranscribed DNA sequence upstream of BCL2 promoters, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription of the BCL2 gene. This may promote and restore the apoptotic pathway in BCL2-overexpressing tumor cells. BCL2, an anti-apoptotic protein, is overexpressed in a wide variety of tumors.
DNA methyltransferase inhibitor SGI-110
A dinucleotide antimetabolite of a decitabine linked via phosphodiester bond to a guanosine, with potential antineoplastic activity. Following metabolic activation by phosphorylation and incorporation into DNA, SGI-110 inhibits DNA methyltransferase, thereby causing genome-wide and non-specific hypomethylation and inducing cell cycle arrest at S-phase. This agent is resistant to cytidine deaminase, hence may result in gradual release of decitabine both extra- and intracellularly, leading to more prolonged exposures to decitabine.
DNA minor groove binding agent PM060184
A marine-derived, synthetically produced compound with potential antineoplastic activity. DNA minor groove-binding agent PM060184 covalently binds to residues lying in the minor groove of DNA, which may result in delayed progression through S phase, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell death.
DNA minor groove-binding agent PM01183
A synthetic tetrahydropyrrolo [4, 3, 2-de]quinolin-8(1H)-one alkaloid analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. DNA minor groove-binding agent PM01183 covalently binds to residues lying in the minor groove of DNA, which may result in delayed progression through S phase, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell death.
DNA plasmid vector pPRA-PSM vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of a DNA plasmid encoding epitopes of the human preferential antigen of melanoma (PRAME) and the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon direct administration of this vaccine into lymph nodes, peptides expressed by DNA plasmid vector pPRA-PSM may activate the immune system, resulting in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against PRAME- and PSMA-expressing cells. PRAME and PSMA are tumor associated antigens upregulated in a number of cancer cell types. As part of the MKC1106-PP regimen exploiting the 'prime-boost strategy', this plasmid is responsible for priming the immune response and is used in conjunction with a peptide vaccine consisting of PRAME and PSMA that boosts the immune system against PRAME- and PSMA-expressing tumor cells.
DNA-dependent protein kinase-targeting siDNA DT01
A proprietary preparation of small interfering DNA (siDNA) molecules with potential chemo/radiosensitizing activity. By mimicking DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), DNA-dependent protein kinase-targeting siDNA DT01 inhibits the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) process, one of the main DNA repair mechanisms, via binding to and activating DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a core component of the NHEJ complex. DNA-PK activation causes hyper-phosphorylation of histone variant H2AX on DNA and results in a different phosphorylated pattern of H2AX upon ionizing radiation treatment. This ultimately interferes with the repair of DNA DSBs during chemo- or radiotherapy, thereby increasing tumor cell death. The enhanced ability of tumor cells to repair DSBs plays a major role in the resistance of tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy.
DNA-PK/TOR kinase inhibitor CC-115
A dual inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), with potential antineoplastic activity. CC-115 binds to and inhibits the activity of DNA-PK and both raptor-mTOR (TOR complex 1 or TORC1) and rictor-mTOR (TOR complex 2 or TORC2), which may lead to a reduction in cellular proliferation of cancer cells expressing DNA-PK and TOR. DNA-PK, a serine/threonine kinase and a member of the PI3K-related kinase subfamily of protein kinases, is activated upon DNA damage and plays a key role in repairing double-stranded DNA breaks via the DNA nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase that is upregulated in a variety of tumors, plays an important role downstream in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
DNAiĀ® drug PNT2258
(Other name for: DNA interference oligonucleotide PNT2258)
DNP-modified autologous renal cell carcinoma tumor cell vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of autologous renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumor cells modified with the hapten 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Administration of DNP-modified autologous renal cell carcinoma tumor cell vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against renal cell carcinoma tumor cells. DNP conjugation may enhance the immunogenicity of weakly immunogenic antigens.
docetaxel emulsion ANX-514
An injectable emulsion formulation containing the taxane docetaxel, a semisynthetic analogue of paclitaxel, with antineoplastic activity. Docetaxel binds specifically to the beta-tubulin subunit of the microtubule, stabilizing tubulin and inhibiting microtubule disassembly, which results in cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. This agent also inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and induces various mediators of the inflammatory response. Docetaxel emulsion ANX-514 is formulated without polysorbate 80 or other detergents in order to reduce the incidence and severity of hypersensitivity reactions. In addition, the exclusion of polysorbate 80 in this formulation precludes foaming during the preparation process, thus facilitating preparation and administration.
docetaxel formulation CKD-810
An injectable formulation containing the taxane docetaxel, a semisynthetic analogue of paclitaxel, with antineoplastic activity. Docetaxel binds specifically to the beta-tubulin subunit of the microtubule, stabilizing tubulin and inhibiting microtubule disassembly, which results in cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. This agent also inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and induces various mediators of the inflammatory response.
docetaxel lipid microspheres
A lipid microsphere (LM)-based formulation containing the poorly water soluble taxane docetaxel, a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel, with antineoplastic activity. Docetaxel binds specifically to the beta-tubulin subunit of the microtubule, stabilizing tubulin and inhibiting microtubule disassembly, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and leads to cell death. This agent also inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and induces various mediators of the inflammatory response. Compared to docetaxel alone, the LM formulation may enhance stability, improve efficacy and may reduce toxicity; this formulation does not contain toxic detergents needed to solubilize docetaxel which further improves its side effect profile.
docetaxel-PNP
A polymeric nanoparticle (PNP) formulation containing the taxane docetaxel, a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel, with antineoplastic activity. Docetaxel binds specifically to the beta-tubulin subunit of the microtubule, stabilizing tubulin and inhibiting microtubule disassembly, which results in cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, preventing cell proliferation. This agent also inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and induces various mediators of the inflammatory response. Compared to docetaxel alone, the PNP formulation may enhance stability and improve delivery.
docosahexaenoic acid
A polyunsaturated very long-chain fatty acid with a 22-carbon backbone and 6 double bonds. Four separate isomers can be called by this name.
Dolobid
(Other name for: diflunisal)
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