Drug Dictionary

ClinOleic
(Other name for: olive oil/soya oil/egg lecithin-based emulsion)
Clinoril
(Other name for: sulindac)
clioquinol
An orally bioavailable, lipophilic, copper-binding, halogenated 8-hydroxyquinoline with antifungal, antiparasitic and potential antitumor activities. Clioquinol forms a stable chelate with copper (copper (II) ions), which inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome; consequently, ubiquitinated proteins may accumulate in tumor cells, followed by tumor cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In addition, the clioquinol-copper complex appears to decrease the expression of androgen receptors (AR) in human copper-enriched prostate cancer cells. Serum levels of copper are often elevated in patients with cancer; copper chelation may inhibit copper-dependent endothelial cell proliferation and tumor secretion of angiogenic factors.
clobetasol propionate
The propionate salt form of clobetasol, a topical synthetic corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties. Clobetasol propionate exerts its effect by binding to cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors and subsequently activates glucocorticoid receptor mediated gene expression. This results in synthesis of certain anti-inflammatory proteins, while inhibiting the synthesis of certain inflammatory mediators. Specifically, clobetasol propionate appears to induce phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, thereby controlling the release of the inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2.
clodronate disodium
The disodium salt of a nitrogen-free bisphosphonate analog of naturally occurring pyrophosphate. Clodronate binds to calcium and inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and hydroxyapatite crystal formation and dissolution, resulting in a reduction of bone turnover. This agent may control malignancy-associated hypercalcemia, inhibit osteolytic bone metastasis and decrease pain.
Clofarex
(Other name for: clofarabine)
clofibrate
An aryloxyisobutyric acid derivate with antihyperlipidemic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been fully characterized, clofibrate may enhance the conversion of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), decreasing the production of hepatic VLDL, inhibiting cholesterol production, and increasing fecal excretion of neutral sterols.
Clomid
(Other name for: clomiphene citrate)
clomiphene citrate
The citrate salt form of clomiphene, a triphenylethylene nonsteroidal ovulatory stimulant evaluated for antineoplastic activity against breast cancer. Clomiphene has both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities that compete with estrogen for binding at estrogen receptor sites in target tissues. This agent causes the release of the pituitary gonadotropins follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), leading to ovulation.
Clonidine Lauriad
(Other name for: clonidine-containing mucoadhesive buccal tablet)
clonidine-containing mucoadhesive buccal tablet
An extended release, proprietary mucoadhesive buccal tablet formulation containing the hydrochloride salt form of clonidine, the imidazoline derivative and adrenergic alpha 2 receptor agonist, with anti-inflammatory activity. Upon contact of the tablet with the buccal mucosa, clonidine binds to the adrenergic receptors on macrophages and lymphocytes and may reduce the release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). As a result, this agent may prevent chemoradiation therapy-induced mucositis.
clopidogrel bisulfate
A thienopyridine with antiplatelet activity. Clopidogrel bisulfate irreversibly alters the platelet receptor for adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thereby blocking the binding of ADP to its receptor, inhibiting ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein complex GPIIb/IIIa, and inhibiting fibrinogen binding to platelets and platelet adhesion and aggregation.
Clostridium novyi-NT spores
Spores of Clostridium novyi-NT, an attenuated strain of the obligate anaerobe Clostridium novyi, with potential immunostimulating and oncolytic activities. Upon intravenous administration, Clostridium novyi-NT spores germinate exclusively in hypoxic tissue, such as avascular regions of tumors. Germination results in lysis and destruction of surrounding viable tumor cells. Although C. novyi-NT spores do not proliferate in oxygenated tumor regions, they may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytolytic immune response against tumor cells, both hypoxic and well-oxygenated.
clotrimazole
A synthetic, imidazole derivate with broad-spectrum, antifungal activity. Clotrimazole inhibits biosynthesis of sterols, particularly ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cell membrane, thereby damaging and affecting the permeability of the cell membrane. This results in leakage and loss of essential intracellular compounds, and eventually causes cell lysis.
cMet CAR-mRNA electroporated autologous T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T-lymphocytes that have been electroporated with an mRNA encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or cMet) scFv (single chain variable fragment) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta) coupled to the co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB (CD137), with potential antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, cMet CAR-mRNA electroporated autologous T lymphocytes direct T-cells to cMet-expressing tumor cells, which induces a selective toxicity in cMet-expressing tumor cells and causes tumor cell lysis. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of cMet. The inclusion of the 4-1BB signaling domain may increase the antitumor activity as compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. The mRNA CAR is expressed for a limited amount of time, which can prevent serious, unforeseen side effects. cMet, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis.
CMV pp65 peptide
A peptide derived from cytomegalovirus (CMV) internal matrix protein pp65. CMV pp65 peptide antigen is used in recombinant vaccinia virus as an HLA-A-restricted epitope to produce vaccines and specific CD8+ and CD4+ cell responses against CMV infection, a serious complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In BMT, CMV infection may be prevented by passive immunization with donor-derived CMV-pp65-specific T-cell clones if provided early post-BMT.
CMVpp65-A*0201 peptide vaccine
A peptide-based cancer vaccine containing a mutated form of the HLA-A*0201-restricted cytomegaloviral epitope CMVpp65(495-503) with potential immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, CMVpp65-A*0201 peptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against CMV-positive cells, resulting in cell lysis. HLA-A*0201 is an MHC class I molecule that presents antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells; epitope design restricted to epitopes that bind most efficiently to HLA-A*0201 may improve antigenic peptide immunogenicity. CMVpp65, a tegument protein of the herpes virus CMV, is the main viral antigen found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after viral infection and may activate cell-mediated immunity.
CMVpp65/gB plasmid vaccine ASP0113
A poloxamer-formulated, bivalent DNA vaccine containing two plasmids encoding both the human cytomegaloviral (CMV) tegument phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), a major internal matrix protein, and glycoprotein B (gB), an important CMV component responsible for attachment and entry into cells, with potential immunostimulatory properties. Upon intramuscular injection of CMVpp65/gB plasmid vaccine ASP0113, the expressed proteins may activate the immune system to mount both cellular and humoral immune responses against CMV-positive cells. This results in cell lysis of CMV-infected cells and prevents both viral replication and the development of CMV disease. This vaccine also provides active immunization and protective immunity against CMV infection in CMV-negative patients exposed to infected donor cells or tissues in transplant recipients. CMV infection can cause serious complications in patients receiving either allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT) or solid organ transplants. The poloxamer-based delivery system enhances DNA delivery.
CNDO-109-activated allogeneic natural killer cells
A preparation of non-interleukin-2 primed, tumor activated allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells with potential immunostimulating activity. The allogeneic NK cells obtained from a first or second degree relative of the patient are co-incubated with a lysate from the CTV-1 cell line, a minimally differentiated myeloid line derived from an acute myelogenous leukemia patient. Infusion of CNDO-109-activated allogeneic NK cells may be able to lyse and destroy NK-resistant tumor cells and a broad spectrum of tumor cells.
CNGRC peptide-TNF alpha conjugate
A cytokine-peptide conjugate composed of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) chemically linked to the peptide CNGRC. The peptide moiety CNGRC, a ligand for the membrane-bound metalloprotease CD13, binds to endothelial cells of the angiogenic vasculature that express CD13 (also known as aminopeptidase N); subsequently, the TNF-alpha moiety induces apoptosis in endothelial cells expressing CD13, thereby inhibiting tumor-associated angiogenesis.
Co-Rax
(Other name for: warfarin)
cobimetinib
An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1 or MEK1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Cobimetinib specifically binds to and inhibits the catalytic activity of MEK1, resulting in inhibition of extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation and activation and decreased tumor cell proliferation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that this agent is effective in inhibiting the growth of tumor cells bearing a B-RAF mutation, which has been found to be associated with many tumor types. A threonine-tyrosine kinase and a key component of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that is frequently activated in human tumors, MEK1 is required for the transmission of growth-promoting signals from numerous receptor tyrosine kinases.
Cocculus/nux vomica/tabacum/petroleum extract
A homeopathic herbal formulation with potential anti-emetic activity. Cocculus/nux vomica/tabacum/petroleum extract contains equal homeopathic units of the following extracts: extract of Cocculus indicus (fish berry), the fruit of the southeast Asian/Indian climbing plant Anamirta cocculus; extract of the seeds of Strychnos nux vomica (poison nut), an evergreen tree native to southeast Asia; extract of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco); and petroleum. Although the exact mechanism(s) of action for this formulation has yet to be fully elucidated, alkaloids in these plant extracts have been shown to relieve nausea, vomiting, and, in some cases, dizziness.
CoFactor
(Other name for: folitixorin)
coffee dietary supplement
A dietary supplement containing coffee, with potential gastrointestinal (GI) tract stimulating activity. Following consumption of the dietary supplement, the coffee may both stimulate peristalsis and increase bowel movement. The supplement may also stimulate the central nervous system, suppress appetite and cause weight loss.
cold contaminant-free iobenguane I 131
An I 131 radioiodinated synthetic analogue of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, manufactured with a proprietary process, with radioisotopic and potential antineoplastic activities. cold contaminant-free iobenguane I 131 (MIBG) localizes to adrenergic tissue and may be used to image or eradicate tumor cells that accumulate and metabolize norepinephrine. This agent is manufactured using a technology that avoids the production of unwanted "cold contaminants" (i.e., carrier molecules), which may cause undesirable side effects and compete with MIBG for binding on target receptor sites.
COLD-fX
(Other name for: North American ginseng extract AFX-2)
collagen/aloe vera/vitamin E/lidocaine topical hydrogel
A topical preparation containing collagen, aloe vera, vitamin E, and lidocaine hydrochloride with wound-healing activity. The four ingredients of collagen/aloe vera/vitamin E/lidocaine topical hydrogel may promote wound repair and new tissue growth in which : collagen, a structural protein in connective tissue, provides a connective tissue matrix for the attachment of various cells involved in wound repair; aloe vera carbohydrate polymers provide a moist wound environment; vitamin E promotes blood vessel formation; and lidocaine acts as a local anesthetic.
colloidal oatmeal cream
A colloidal oatmeal-based skin cream with potential moisturizing and skin protecting activity. Upon application to the skin, colloidal oatmeal cream forms a protective barrier and thereby prevents water loss, provides moisture to the skin and protects the skin from damage.
Colprosterone
(Other name for: therapeutic progesterone)
Combidex
(Other name for: ferumoxtran-10)
Combotox
(Other name for: deglycosylated ricin A chain-conjugated anti-CD19/anti-CD22 immunotoxins)
combretastatin A1 diphosphate
The diphosphate prodrug of the stilbenoid combretastatin A1, originally isolated from the plant Combretum caffrum, with vascular-disrupting and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, combretastatin A1 diphosphate (CA1P) is dephosphorylated to the active metabolite combretastatin A1 (CA1), which promotes rapid microtubule depolymerization; endothelial cell mitotic arrest and apoptosis, destruction of the tumor vasculature, disruption of tumor blood flow and tumor cell necrosis may ensue. In addition, orthoquinone intermediates, metabolized from combretastatin A1 by oxidative enzymes found to be elevated levels in some tumor types, may bind to tumor cell thiol-specific antioxidant proteins and DNA, and stimulate oxidative stress by enhancing superoxide/hydrogen peroxide production. CA1 binds to tubulin at the same site as colchicine but with higher affinity.
Cometriq
(Other name for: cabozantinib-s-malate)
Commit
(Other name for: nicotine lozenge)
Compound 42
(Other name for: warfarin)
conatumumab
A fully human monoclonal agonist antibody directed against the extracellular domain of human TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) receptor 2 (TR-2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Conatumumab mimics the activity of native TRAIL, binding to and activating TR-2, thereby activating caspase cascades and inducing tumor cell apoptosis. TR-2 is expressed by a variety of solid tumors and cancers of hematopoietic origin.
Concentraid
(Other name for: desmopressin acetate)
concentrated beet crystals
A formulation containing concentrated beetroot crystals, with potential antioxidant and protective activities. Concentrated beetroot crystals contain antioxidants, including betacyanin, which scavenge free radicals, and high levels of nitrates and folic acid. Intake of concentrated beetroot crystals leads to the conversion of nitrate to nitric oxide (NO). This may have a beneficial effect on blood flow and blood pressure through the stimulation of NO-mediated vasodilation. Additionally, this agent may decrease fatigue and increase physical performance.
conditionally replicative adenovirus 5/3-delta24
A replication competent, oncolytic adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) with its knob domain of fiber protein substituted by that of the serotype 3 (Ad5/3-delta24), with potential oncolytic activity. Upon administration, oncolytic adenovirus Ad5/3-delta24 binds to specific Ad3 receptors that are highly expressed on certain tumor cells. This results in the replication of oncolytic adenovirus Ad5/3-delta24 in tumor cells and induces tumor cell lysis which may potentially result in the activation of a systemic immune response against tumor-associated antigens. The Ad5/3-delta24 has a 24 base-pair deletion in constant region 2 of the E1A gene which allows for selective replication in cells that are defective in the retinoblastoma gene (Rb) or cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-2A (CDKN2A or p16INK4a). As most tumor cells are defective in the Rb/p16 pathway, this virus selectively replicates in these cells. The replacement of the Ad5 fiber knob, which mediates viral-cell receptor binding, allows for a Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR)-independent infection of tumor cells; CAR expression is often deficient on cancer cells.
conjugated estrogens
Purified orally bioavailable female sex hormones isolated from pregnant mare urine or synthetically derived from plant materials and primarily conjugated as sulfate esters. Estrogen binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, which, in turn, bind to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, resulting in histone acetylation, alteration of chromatin conformation, and initiation of transcription.
conjugated linoleic acid
A slightly altered form of linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid important to human health found in beef and dairy fats.
Constant-T
(Other name for: theophylline)
contrast agent CS-1000
An aqueous colloidal nanoemulsion containing perfluorocarbon (PFC) polymers that can be used as a tracer for cell tracking purposes during fluorine-19 (19F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Upon administration of the contrast agent CS-1000 to cells ex vivo, this agent freely enters the cells. Upon introduction of these cells into the patient and subsequent 19F MRI, the amount of fluorine can be detected and cellular persistence, survival and distribution of the treated cells can be assessed. The emulsion allows for fast entry of the fluorinated polymers into cells; the polymers do not degrade and remain in the cells.
copanlisib
A phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Copanlisib inhibits the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway, which may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
COPP-ABV regimen
A regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone and procarbazine (COPP) alternating with doxorubicin, bleomycin and vinblastine (ABV), used in combination with radiation therapy for the treatment of low-risk, childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 62 ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazone)
A radiopharmaceutical composed of the nonspecific perfusion agent ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazone) (ETS) linked to the beta-emitting, radioisotope copper Cu 62, with potential tumor imaging activity upon positron emitting tomography (PET). Upon injection, copper Cu 62-ETS distributes to various organs, especially the kidneys and the myocardium. Upon PET imaging, tumor blood flow can be visualized and the efficacy of antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic chemotherapeutics can be assessed. Cu62-ETS has a short half life of 9.74 minutes. ETS has an enhanced hyperemic response compared to other perfusion agents.
copper Cu 62-ATSM
A radioconjugate consisting of a lipophilic, neutral, bioreductive copper-bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex, copper-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM), labeled with the beta-emitting radioisotope copper Cu 62, with hypoxia-selective and positron emitting tomography (PET) radioimaging activities. With a high membrane permeability and low reduction potential, copper Cu 62-ATSM easily enters cells. This agent can only be reduced by mitochondria found in hypoxic cells with abnormally high electron concentrations. This chemical reaction traps Cu 62-ATSM in the cell, which allows for the selective accumulation of this agent in hypoxic cells compared to normoxic cells. The extent of copper Cu 62-ATSM retention in tissue is inversely related to the state of tissue oxygenation allowing the quantitation of tissue hypoxia with PET. This provides information about diagnosis, prognosis, treatment options and outcomes for certain cancers. The short half-life of copper Cu 62 (9.7 minutes) reduces the amount of radiation a patient is subjected to and allows for several imaging studies to be performed. Hypoxic tumors are associated with increased malignancy and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy.
copper Cu 62-PTSM
copper Cu 64 plerixafor
A radioconjugate labeled with the positron-emitting radioisotope, copper Cu 64, and also composed of plerixafor, a bicyclam and hematopoietic stem cell-mobilizing agent that targets the chemokine receptor CXCR4, with tumor imaging potential using positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Upon administration, the plerixafor moiety blocks the binding of stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha or CXCL12) to the cellular receptor CXCR4. In turn, the CXCR4-expressing tumor cells can be visualized using PET/CT and the resulting images could be used to predict a tumor's response to certain treatments. The expression of CXCR4 on cancer cells has been correlated with increased tumor cell survival, tumor progression, and increased metastatic potential.
copper Cu 64 TP3805
A peptide analog of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) radiolabeled with the positron-emitting radioisotope copper Cu 64, with potential diagnostic ability upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The peptide moiety of copper Cu 64 TP3805 is able to bind to vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide receptors 1 (VPAC1). Upon PET imaging, the cancer cells expressing VPAC1 can be visualized and this may allow for early detection. The oncogenic product VPAC1 is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, moreover, it is overexpressed in 100% of breast tumors at the onset of the cancer. Compared to other positron-emitting radioisotopes, Cu 64 has a longer half life.
copper Cu 64 trastuzumab
A diagnostic radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab conjugated with the positron-emitting radioisotope copper Cu 64. Copper Cu 64 trastuzumab binds to the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), allowing the detection of HER2 distribution using positron emission tomography (PET).
copper Cu 64-DOTA-AE105
A radiotracer composed of AE105, a urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) peptide antagonist, conjugated with DOTA and labeled with the radionuclide copper Cu 64, with potential imaging activity upon positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration, the AE105 moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-AE105 targets and binds to uPAR-expressing tumor cells. Upon PET imaging, the copper Cu 64 moiety can be visualized, uPAR-expressing tumor cells can be quantified and the degree of tumor aggressiveness can be assessed. uPAR expression is correlated with increased tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness as well as a poor prognosis.
copper Cu 64-DOTA-anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody U3-1287
A radioimmunoconjugate of the fully human monoclonal antibody against the third member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER3 or ERBB3, conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with radioisotope copper Cu 64, with potential diagnostic properties upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and antineoplastic activity. The antibody moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody U3-1287 binds to and blocks the activation of HER3, thereby resulting in the inhibition of EGFR-dependent PI3K/AKT signaling and the subsequent inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation. The Cu 64 moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography (PET), thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of HER3-expressing tumor cells. HER3, which lacks the kinase domain conveying ligand-binding signaling by forming heterodimers with other EGFR members that have kinase activity, is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors.
copper Cu 64-DOTA-rituximab
A radioimmunoconjugate containing rituximab, a recombinant chimeric murine/human antibody directed against the human CD20 antigen, conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with the radioisotope copper Cu 64 with potential diagnostic properties upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The monoclonal antibody moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-Rituximab specifically binds to cell surface antigen CD20. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of CD20-expressing tumor cells. CD20 is a non-glycosylated phosphoprotein that is exclusively expressed on B cells during most stages of B cell development and is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies.
copper Cu 64-DOTA-trastuzumab
A radioimmunoconjugate containing the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with the radioisotope copper Cu 64 with radioisotopic activity and potential use as an imaging agent. The trastuzumab moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-trastuzumab binds with high affinity to the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography (PET), thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2, a tyrosine kinase and client protein of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types.
copper gluconate
The orally bioavailable copper salt of D-gluconic acid. In addition to its roles as an enzyme cofactor for cytochrome C oxidase and superoxide dismutase, copper forms complexes with the thiocarbamate disulfiram (DSF) forming DSF-copper complexes, which enhances the DSF-mediated inhibition of the 26S proteasome; proteasome inhibition may result in inhibition of cellular protein degradation, cessation of cell cycle progression, inhibition of cellular proliferation, and the induction of apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations.
Cordarone
(Other name for: amiodarone hydrochloride)
Coreg CR
(Other name for: carvedilol phosphate extended-release capsule)
Corgard
(Other name for: nadolol)
Cort-Dome
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
Cortalone
(Other name for: prednisolone)
Cortef
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
Cortenema
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
corticorelin acetate
A synthetic therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous human corticotropin-releasing factor (hCRF). Synthesized in the hypothalamus, hCRF stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In cerebral edema, hCRF acts by impeding the flow of fluid from blood vessels into brain tissue, thereby decreasing edema and stabilizing intracranial pressure. This agent possesses anti-edema properties independent of adrenal gland function.
corticotropin-releasing hormone
A hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus and regulates the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
Cortispray
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
Cortril
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
Corynebacterium granulosum P40
An insoluble fraction isolated from the bacterium Corynebacterium granulosum with potential cancer immunotherapeutic activity. As a non-specific immunostimulant, Corynebacterium granulosum P40 activates the reticulo-endothelial system; induces the production of certain cytokines; enhances macrophage activity; and potentiates a delayed-type hypersensitivity response when co-administered with an antigen.
Cosmegen
(Other name for: dactinomycin)
Cotara
(Other name for: iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody TNT-1/B)
Cotrim
(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
Coumadin
(Other name for: warfarin)
coxsackievirus A21
A naturally occurring enterovirus with potential antitumor activity. Upon intratumoral administration, coxsackievirus A21 targets and binds to intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and decay acceleration factor (DAF), both cell surface molecules that are both overexpressed on certain malignant cells. After entering the cells, coxsackievirus A21 replicates in these cancer cells, thereby causing cancer cell lysis. This results in a reduction of tumor cell growth.
CpG oligodeoxynucleotide
A synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide, containing unmethylated CpG motifs derived from bacterial DNA, with immunostimulatory activities. A CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) binds to and activates a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and is taken up into cells by endocytosis; once internalized, it may activate numerous signaling transduction pathways resulting in the release of multiple cytokines. Through activation of TLR9, a CpG ODN can directly stimulate B-lymphocytes, dendritic and NK cells, resulting in an increase in innate immunity and antibody-dependant cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Additionally, a CpG ODN can indirectly modulate T-cell responses, through the release of cytokines (IL-12 and IFN gamma), to induce a preferential shift to the Th1 (helper) phenotype resulting in enhanced CD8+ cellular cytotoxicity.
CpG oligodeoxynucleotide GNKG168
A synthetic, 21-mer, unmethylated CpG motif-based oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), with immunostimulatory activity. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide GNKG168 binds to and activates Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and is taken up into cells by endocytosis; once internalized, it may activate numerous signaling transduction pathways resulting in the release of multiple cytokines, such as immunoglobulins (Igs), interferons (IFNs), interleukins (ILs) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Through activation of TLR9, this ODN can directly stimulate B-lymphocytes, dendritic and natural killer (NK) cells, resulting in an increase in innate immunity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In addition, through the release of IL-12 and IFN, this agent may induce a preferential shift to the T-helper 1(Th1) phenotype resulting in enhanced CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor cytotoxicity.
CR2-fH fusion protein TT30
A recombinant, chimeric human fusion protein consisting of the iC3b/C3d-binding region of human complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) linked to the alternative complement pathway (ACP) inhibitory domain of human factor H (fH) (CR2-fH), with potential complement system inhibiting activity. Via its C3 binding domain, TT30 selectively binds to complement-activated cell surfaces and via its fH binding domain regulates ACP activity. This suppresses excessive complement activity and may result in an inhibition of ACP-mediated hemolysis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) red blood cells (RBCs) as well as preventing ACP-induced tissue damage. Factor H is a key regulator in the activation of ACP.
creatine monohydrate
The monohydrate form of creatine similar or identical to endogenous creatine produced in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Creatine, in phosphate form, helps supply energy to muscle cells for contraction. After intense effort, when ATP deposits are depleted, creatine phosphate donates phosphate groups toward the fast synthesis of ATP. Dietary supplementation with creatine may improve muscle wasting associated with cancer and other chronic diseases.
crenolanib
An orally bioavailable small molecule, targeting the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Crenolanib binds to and inhibits PDGFR, which may result in the inhibition of PDGFR-related signal transduction pathways, and, so, the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. PDGFR, up-regulated in many tumor cell types, is a receptor tyrosine kinase essential to cell migration and the development of the microvasculature.
Creon
(Other name for: pancrelipase)
cridanimod sodium
The sodium salt form of cridanimod, a small molecule that can increase progesterone receptor (PR) expression, with potential antineoplastic adjuvant activity. Upon intramuscular administration, cridanimod is able to induce the expression of PR in endometrial cancer. This could increase the sensitivity of endometrial cancer cells to progestin monotherapy. In combination with a progestin, cancer cells could be eradicated through increased PR-mediated signaling, leading to an inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the pituitary gland, via a negative feedback mechanism, and, eventually, an inhibition of estrogen release from the ovaries. This leads to an inhibition of cellular growth in estrogen-dependent tumor cells. In addition, this agent is able to increase the production and release of interferon (IFN) alpha and beta. PR is often downregulated in endometrial cancer and makes it resistant to progestin-mediated hormone therapy.
Cristanaspase
(Other name for: asparaginase)
Crixivan
(Other name for: indinavir sulfate)
crizotinib
An orally available aminopyridine-based inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and the c-Met/hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR) with antineoplastic activity. Crizotinib, in an ATP-competitive manner, binds to and inhibits ALK kinase and ALK fusion proteins. In addition, crizotinib inhibits c-Met kinase, and disrupts the c-Met signaling pathway. Altogether, this agent inhibits tumor cell growth. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development. ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a series of tumors.
CRM1 nuclear export inhibitor KPT-330
An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1 protein, exportin 1 or XPO1), with potential antineoplastic activity. CRM1 nuclear export inhibitor KPT-330 modifies the essential CRM1-cargo binding residue cysteine-528, thereby irreversibly inactivating CRM1-mediated nuclear export of cargo proteins such as tumor suppressor proteins (TSPs), including p53, p21, BRCA1/2, pRB, FOXO, and other growth regulatory proteins. As a result, this agent, via the approach of selective inhibition of nuclear export (SINE), restores endogenous tumor suppressing processes to selectively eliminate tumor cells while sparing normal cells. CRM1, the major export factor for proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types.
crolibulin
A small molecule tubulin polymerization inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Crolibulin binds to the colchicine-binding site on beta-tubulin and inhibits the polymerization of tubulin into microtubules, which may result in cell cycle arrest, the induction of apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. As a vascular disruption agent (VDA), this agent also disrupts tumor neovascularization, which may result in a reduction in tumor blood flow and tumor hypoxia and ischemic necrosis.
crotoxin
A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.
crystalline genistein formulation AXP107-11
An orally available crystalline formulation of genistein, a soy-derived isoflavone and phytoestrogen with potential antineoplastic, chemosensitizing, and antioxidant activities. Similar to genistein, crystalline genistein formulation AXP107-11 increases expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which deactivates protein kinase Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK1 and 3; ERK2 and 1), thereby disrupting PI3K/Akt signal transduction and inducing apoptosis. This agent also induces antioxidant enzymes through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, inhibits NF-kB activation and decreases inflammation response, thereby sensitizing tumors to chemotherapy. Compared to genistein itself, this crystalline formulation shows improved solubility and bioavailability.
CTP-37-DT vaccine
A vaccine composed of synthetic peptides derived from beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) conjugated to diphtheria toxoid. Vaccination with this peptide may elicit the host immune response against hCG-producing cancer cells.
Cuprenil
(Other name for: penicillamine)
Cuprimine
(Other name for: penicillamine)
curcumin/green tea extract/Polygonum cuspidatum extract/soybean extract capsule
An oral capsule containing curcumin, green tea extract, Polygonum cuspidatum extract, and soybean extract, with antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. The antioxidants in curcumin/green tea extract/Polygonum cuspidatum extract/soybean extract capsule bind to and neutraliize free-radicals, which may prevent their genotoxic and carcinogenic effects.
Curretab
(Other name for: medroxyprogesterone)
CXCR4 antagonist BKT140
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCR4) with potential antineoplastic activity. CXCR4 antagonist BKT140 selectively binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, preventing the binding of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) to the CXCR4 receptor and subsequent receptor activation, which may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, inhibition of CXCR4 may induce mobilization of hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow into blood. The G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 plays an important role in chemotaxis and angiogenesis and is upregulated in several tumor cell types; SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction induces retention of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow.
CXCR4 antagonist BL-8040
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCR4) with potential antineoplastic activity. CXCR4 antagonist BL-8040 selectively binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, preventing the binding of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) to the CXCR4 receptor and subsequent receptor activation, which may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, inhibition of CXCR4 may induce mobilization of hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow into blood. The G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 plays an important role in chemotaxis and angiogenesis and is upregulated in several tumor cell types; SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction induces retention of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow.
CXCR4 antagonist TG-0054
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) with receptor binding and hematopoietic stem cell-mobilization activities. CXCR4 inhibitor TG-0054 binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, thereby preventing the binding of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) to the CXCR4 receptor and subsequent receptor activation; this may the mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow into blood. CXCR4, a chemokine receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) gene family, plays an important role in chemotaxis and angiogenesis and is upregulated in several tumor cell types; CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction induces retention of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow.
CXCR4 inhibitor MSX-122
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCR4 with potential antineoplastic and antiviral activities. CXCR4 inhibitor MSX-122 binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, preventing the binding of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) to the CXCR4 receptor and receptor activation, which may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and migration. CXCR4, a chemokine receptor belonging to the GPCR (G protein-coupled receptor) gene family, plays an important role in chemotaxis and angiogenesis and is upregulated in several tumor cell types; it is also a co-receptor for HIV entry into T cells.
CXCR4 inhibitor POL6326
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) with receptor binding and hematopoietic stem cell-mobilization activities. CXCR4 inhibitor POL6326 binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, thereby preventing the binding of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) to the CXCR4 receptor and subsequent receptor activation. This may induce the mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from the bone marrow into blood. CXCR4, a chemokine receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) gene family, plays an important role in chemotaxis and angiogenesis and is upregulated in several tumor cell types; CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction induces retention of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow.
CXCR4 peptide antagonist LY2510924
An inhibitor of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon subcutaneous administration, CXCR4 inhibitor LY2510924 binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, thereby preventing CXCR4 binding to its ligand, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and subsequent receptor activation. This may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and migration. CXCR4, a chemokine receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) gene family, plays an important role in chemotaxis and angiogenesis and is upregulated in several tumor cell types.
cyclin B1 peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine comprised of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with cyclin B1 peptide, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, cyclin B1 peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and anti-cyclin B1 antibody responses against cyclin B1-expressing cancer cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Cyclin B1, a key regulator of the cell cycle and cell division, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells.
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